Pakistan and India have had testy relations at best since independence. Some key dates that helped define the South Asian nations:
Muslim refugees crowd on top a train leaving New Delhi for Pakistan.
August 1947: (Britain ends its colonial rule)
Britain ends its colonial rule over the Indian subcontinent, which becomes two independent nations — Hindu-majority, but secularly governed India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The division, widely known as Partition, sparks massive rioting that kills up to 1 million, while another 15 million flee their homes in one of the world’s largest human migrations.
October 1947: (War over control of Kashmir)
The two young nations begin a war over control of Kashmir, a Muslim-majority kingdom ruled by a Hindu maharaja. A UN-brokered cease-fire ends the war in a year with Kashmir divided between them.
January 1949: (UN Security Council resolution)
India and Pakistan agree to a UN Security Council resolution calling for a referendum in which Kashmiris would determine their future; the vote never takes place.
September 1960: (Indus Water Treaty)
Pakistan and India sign a World Bank-brokered Indus Water Treaty governing six rivers, or three rivers each. It is the only Pakistan-India treaty that has held.
Indian troops in Kashmir, 1965.
August 1965: (Second war over Kashmir)
A second war begins over Kashmir, ending a month later in another UN-mandated ceasefire.
December 1971: (Third War – Creation of Bangladesh)
A third war is fought, this time as India supports secessionists in East Pakistan. The war ends with the creation of Bangladesh.
July 1972: (Pakistani prisoners of war)
The countries’ prime ministers sign an accord for the return of tens of thousands of Pakistani prisoners of war.
May 1974: (Indian nuclear test)
India conducts a nuclear test, becoming the first nation to do so that’s not a permanent UN Security Council member.
December 1989: (Armed resistance in Kashmir)
Armed resistance to Indian rule in Kashmir begins. India accuses Pakistan of giving weapons and training to the fighters. Pakistan says it offers only ‘moral and diplomatic’ support.
Sampling of Indian newspaper headlines announces India’s test of nuclear devices.
May 1998: (Nuclear Race)
India detonates five nuclear devices in tests. Pakistan detonates six. Both are slapped with international sanctions.
February 1999: (Indian Prime Minister in Lahore)
Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee rides a bus to Lahore to meet with Pakistan counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, and sign a major peace accord.
May 1999: (Kargil Issue)
Conflict erupts in Kargil as Pakistani forces and Kashmiri fighters occupy Himalayan peaks. India launches air and ground strikes. The US brokers peace.
May 2001: (President Pervez Musharraf in India)
Vajpayee and President Pervez Musharraf meet in the Indian city of Agra, but reach no agreements.
Indian Black Cat commandos escort civilians outside the Parliament House as half a dozen armed men stormed the complex in New Delhi, India, Dec. 2001.
October 2001: (Insurgents attack in Kashmir)
Insurgents attack the legislature building in Indian-controlled Kashmir, killing 38 people.
December 2001: (Indian Parliament under Attack)
Gunmen attack India’s Parliament, killing 14. India blames militant groups Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad, and deploys troops to its western frontier with Pakistan. The standoff ends in October 2002 after international mediation.
January 2004: (Musharraf – Vajpayee talks)
Musharraf and Vajpayee hold talks, launching bilateral negotiations to settle outstanding issues.
An Indian soldier takes cover as the Taj Mahal hotel burns during gun battle between Indian military and militants inside the hotel in Mumbai, India, Nov. 2008.
February 2007: (Samjhauta Express Accident)
A train service between India and Pakistan, the Samjhauta Express, is bombed in northern India, killing 68.
October 2008: (Trade route )
India and Pakistan open a trade route across divided Kashmir for the first time in six decades.
November 2008: (Mumbai under Attack)
Gunmen attack Mumbai, killing 166 people. India blames a Pakistan-based militant group.
May 2014: (Modi Invites Nawaz Sharif)
India’s new Prime Minister Narendra Modi invites Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif to New Delhi for his inauguration.
December 2015: (Modi’s Surprise Visit of Lahore)
Modi makes a surprise visit to the Pakistani city of Lahore on Sharif’s birthday and the wedding of his granddaughter.
January 2016: (Pathankot Accident)
Six gunmen attack an Indian air force base in the northern town of Pathankot, killing seven soldiers in a battle that lasted nearly four days.
July 2016: (Shahadat of Burhan Wani)
Indian soldiers kill Kashmiri separatist Burhan Wani, sparking months of anti-India protests and deadly clashes in the region.
September 2016: (18 Indian Soldiers killed in Kahsmir)
Suspected rebels sneak into an Indian army base in Kashmir and kill 18 soldiers. Four attackers are also killed.
Published in Express Tribune